“Every mountain top is within reach if you just keep climbing.”

— Richard James Molloy


Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiologist in the United States, a three year residency in internal medicine is followed by a three year residency in cardiology. It is possible to specialize further in a sub-specialty.

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterised by:

  1. Typical symptoms: breathlessness, fatigue, ankle swelling.
  2. Typical signs: tachycardia, tachypnoea, pulmonary rales, pleural effusion, raised jugular venous pressure (JVP), peripheral oedema, hepatomegaly.
  3. Objective evidence of a structural or functional abnormality of the heart at rest: cardiomegaly, third heart sound, cardiac murmurs, echocardiogram abnormalities.


  • Dr. Kazia Mohammad Ismail

    Dr. Kazia Mohammad Ismail

  • Dr. Muhammed Zubair

    Dr. Muhammed Zubair

       MBBS, MD
  • Dr. Muhammad Saeed

    Dr. Muhammad Saeed

       MBBS, MCPS
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